JUDICIAL INTERACTION TECHNIQUE
Preliminary ruling

Art. 267 TFEU provides a mechanism of direct cooperation between national judges and the CJEU. It allows any national court to refer questions directly to the CJEU on the interpretation or validity of EU law. In principle, courts against whose decisions there is no domestic judicial remedy are under an obligation to refer a preliminary question whenever they have doubt on the interpretation or the validity of EU provisions, whereas other courts are under an obligation to refer only if they consider that the provision of EU law applicable to their case is not valid.